| Author||Ding Hou|
|Journal||Flora Malesiana - Series 1, Spermatophyta|
|Abstract||Evergreen trees or shrubs, mangrove species with various remarkable root formations. Branching (in the mangrove genera) mostly sympodial; branchlets swollen at the nodes, solid and pithy, hollow in Crossostylis, Gynotroches, and Pellacalyx. Innovation continuous, but flushwise in Anisophyllea. Leaves decussate and stipulate, rarely alternate and exstipulate ( Anisophyllea and Combretocarpus), usually isomorphic, rarely dimorphic ( Anisophyllea spp.), gland-like cork warts sometimes occurring as small black spots on the lower surface; young leaves involute or convolute. Nervation generally pinnate, more rarely curvinerved and with 1-2 intramarginal veins ( Anisophyllea). Stipules conspicuous, interpetiolar, caducous, opposite, except in Pellacalyx overlapping each with one free margin, in Malaysia with colleters at the base inside, leaving an annular scar. Inflorescences axillary, simple or branched, usually cymose (lax or condensed and cluster-like), racemose or fascicled, rarely consisting of a solitary flower. Flowers usually bisexual, rarely unisexual or polygamous and plants monoecious ( Anisophyllea and Gynotroches), sustained at the base by connate or cupular bracteoles or ebracteolate. Calyx 3-16-lobed, lobes valvate, persistent. Petals free, equal in number to the calyx lobes and alternating with them, usually fleshy and conduplicate, sometimes embracing 2 (Bruguiera) or 1 stamen, entire, 2-fid, lacerate or fringed with appendages at the apex, usually clawed, caducous during or after anthesis, rarely persistent. Stamens free or epipetalous ones adnate to the petals in Anisophyllea sp. (or adnate to the calyx tube in Pellacalyx), in one whorl (except in P. symphiodiscus), usually twice the number of the petals and one opposite and one alternating with the petals, in Bruguiera in pairs opposite and embraced by the petals, in Rhizophora apiculata 3 times and in Crossostylis spp. 3-4 times as many stamens as petals, in Kandelia indefinite in number, in some species some stamens may be aborted and staminodial, free or connate at the base; anthers typically 4-celled, rarely multi-locellate (Rhizophora), dorsifixed, dehiscing longitudinally and introrse, in Rhizophora opening with a large ventral valve. Disk fleshy, annular, and crenate or flat, or lobed, rarely absent. Ovary inferior, rarely semi-inferior or superior (Gynotroches, Cassipourea), 2—12-celled, rarely 1-celled by suppression of the septa; style simple with simple or ± lobed stigma, or styles free, persistent. Ovules (1-)2- ~ in each cell, pendulous, attached axile or in 1-celled ovaries on the columella-like axis running from base to apex, anatropous with micropyle upward and outward. Fruit always bearing the persistent calyx and often other floral remains, a berry or a drupe or dry and rather hard-shelled (Anisophyllea), indehiscent, rarely (in extra-Mal. spp.) a capsule and dehiscent, winged in Combretocarpus. Seeds pendulous, 1-~, sometimes (in extra-Mal. spp.) arillate, viviparous in mangroves, germinating in the ordinary way in inland species; albumen fleshy or small and soon obsolete (in Rhizophoreae); embryo straight or curved.|
Distribution. Mainly in the Old World, 16 genera² with an estimated 120 spp.
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